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Wicky Lübeck

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Nevertheless, the printing of books resumed from onwards, with Andronik Timofeevich Nevezha and his son Ivan now heading the Print Yard.

Ivan had St. Basil's Cathedral constructed in Moscow to commemorate the seizure of Kazan. There is a legend that he was so impressed with the structure that he had the architect, Postnik Yakovlev , blinded so that he could never design anything as beautiful again.

However, Postnik Yakovlev really went on to design more churches for Ivan and the walls of the Kazan Kremlin in the early s as well as the chapel over St.

Basil's grave, which was added to St. Basil's Cathedral in , several years after Ivan's death. Although more than one architect was associated with that name, it is believed that the principal architect is the same person.

Other events of the period include the introduction of the first laws restricting the mobility of the peasants, which would eventually lead to serfdom and were instituted during the rule of the future Tsar Boris Godunov in The s brought to Russia hardships that led to a dramatic change of Ivan's policies.

Russia was devastated by a combination of drought: famine; unsuccessful wars against the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth ; Tatar invasions and the sea-trading blockade carried out by the Swedes, Poles and the Hanseatic League.

His first wife, Anastasia Romanovna , died in , which was suspected to be a poisoning. The personal tragedy deeply hurt Ivan and is thought to have affected his personality, if not his mental health.

At the same time, one of Ivan's advisors, Prince Andrei Kurbsky , defected to the Lithuanians, took command of the Lithuanian troops and devastated the Russian region of Velikiye Luki.

That series of treasons made Ivan paranoically suspicious of nobility. On 3 December , Ivan departed Moscow for Aleksandrova Sloboda , where he sent two letters in which he announced his abdication because of the alleged embezzlement and treason of the aristocracy and the clergy.

The boyar court was unable to rule in Ivan's absence and feared the wrath of the Muscovite citizens. A boyar envoy departed for Aleksandrova Sloboda to beg Ivan to return to the throne.

He demanded to be able to execute and confiscate the estates of traitors without interference from the boyar council or church.

Ivan decreed the creation of the oprichnina. That was a separate territory within the borders of Russia, mostly in the territory of the former Novgorod Republic in the north.

Ivan held exclusive power over the territory. The Boyar Council ruled the zemshchina 'land' , the second division of the state.

Ivan also recruited a personal guard known as the Oprichniki. Originally it numbered One known oprichnik was the German adventurer Heinrich von Staden.

The oprichniki enjoyed social and economic privileges under the oprichnina. They owed their allegiance and status to Ivan, not heredity or local bonds.

The first wave of persecutions targeted primarily the princely clans of Russia, notably the influential families of Suzdal.

Ivan executed, exiled or forcibly tonsured prominent members of the boyar clans on questionable accusations of conspiracy. Among those who were executed were the Metropolitan Philip and the prominent warlord Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky.

In , Ivan extended the oprichnina to eight central districts. Of the 12, nobles, became oprichniki and the rest were expelled. Under the new political system, the oprichniki were given large estates but, unlike the previous landlords, could not be held accountable for their actions.

The men "took virtually all the peasants possessed, forcing them to pay 'in one year as much as [they] used to pay in ten.

The price of grain increased ten times. Conditions under the Oprichnina were worsened by the epidemic, a plague that killed 10, people in Novgorod and to 1, daily in Moscow.

During the grim conditions of the epidemic, a famine and the ongoing Livonian War , Ivan grew suspicious that noblemen of the wealthy city of Novgorod were planning to defect and to place the city itself into the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

A Novgorod citizen Petr Volynets warned the tsar about the alleged conspiracy, which modern historians believe to be false.

In , Ivan ordered the Oprichniki to raid the city. The oprichniki burned and pillaged Novgorod and the surrounding villages, and the city has never regained its former prominence.

Casualty figures vary greatly from different sources. The First Pskov Chronicle estimates the number of victims at 60, The massacre of Novgorod consisted of men, women and children that were tied to sleighs and run into the freezing waters of the Volkhov River, which Ivan ordered on the basis of unproved accusations of treason.

He then tortured its inhabitants and killed thousands in a pogrom. The archbishop was also hunted to death. The oprichnina did not live long after the sack of Novgorod.

During the —72 Russo-Crimean War , oprichniki failed to prove themselves worthy against a regular army. In , Ivan abolished the Oprichnina and disbanded his oprichniki.

In , Ivan once again pretended to resign from his title and proclaimed Simeon Bekbulatovich , his statesman of Tatar origin, the new Tsar.

Simeon reigned as a figurehead leader for a year. According to the English envoy Giles Fletcher, the Elder , Simeon acted under Ivan's instructions to confiscate all of the lands that belonged to monasteries, and Ivan pretended to disagree with the decision.

When the throne was returned to Ivan in , he returned some of the confiscated land and kept the rest. However, all of the craftsmen were arrested in Lübeck at the request of Poland and Livonia.

The German merchant companies ignored the new port built by Ivan on the River Narva in and continued to deliver goods in the Baltic ports owned by Livonia.

Russia remained isolated from sea trade. Ivan established close ties with the Kingdom of England. In , Chancellor sailed to the White Sea and continued overland to Moscow, where he visited Ivan's court.

Ivan opened up the White Sea and the port of Arkhangelsk to the company and granted it privilege of trading throughout his reign without paying the standard customs fees.

With the use of English merchants, Ivan engaged in a long correspondence with Elizabeth I of England.

While the queen focused on commerce, Ivan was more interested in a military alliance. During his troubled relations with the boyars, Ivan even asked her for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England if his rule was jeopardised.

Elizabeth agreed if he provided for himself during his stay. Ivan corresponded with overseas Orthodox leaders. In response to a letter of Patriarch Joachim of Alexandria asking him for financial assistance for the Saint Catherine's Monastery , in the Sinai Peninsula , which had suffered by the Turks, Ivan sent in a delegation to Egypt Eyalet by Archdeacon Gennady, who, however, died in Constantinople before he could reach Egypt.

From then on, the embassy was headed by Smolensk merchant Vasily Poznyakov, whose delegation visited Alexandria, Cairo and Sinai; brought the patriarch a fur coat and an icon sent by Ivan and left an interesting account of his two-and-a-half years of travels.

Ivan was the first ruler to begin cooperating with the free cossacks on a large scale. Relations were handled through the Posolsky Prikaz diplomatic department; Moscow sent them money and weapons, while tolerating their freedoms, to draw them into an alliance against the Tatars.

The first evidence of cooperation surfaces in when Ivan ordered the Don Cossacks to attack Crimea. While Ivan was a child, armies of the Kazan Khanate repeatedly raided northeastern Russia.

After his advance was stalled near Murom, Safa Giray was forced to withdraw to his own borders. The reverses undermined Safa Giray's authority in Kazan.

A pro-Russian party, represented by Shahgali , gained enough popular support to make several attempts to take over the Kazan throne.

In , Ivan mounted an expedition to the River Volga to show his support for the pro-Russians. In , the tsar sent his envoy to the Nogai Horde , and they promised to maintain neutrality during the impending war.

The Ar begs and Udmurts submitted to Russian authority as well. In , the wooden fort of Sviyazhsk was transported down the Volga from Uglich all the way to Kazan.

It was used as the Russian place d'armes during the decisive campaign of On 16 June , Ivan led a strong Russian army towards Kazan.

The last siege of the Tatar capital commenced on 30 August. Under the supervision of Prince Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky , the Russians used battering rams and a siege tower , undermining and cannons.

The Russians also had the advantage of efficient military engineers. The city's water supply was blocked and the walls were breached.

Kazan finally fell on 2 October, its fortifications were razed and much of the population massacred. Many Russian prisoners and slaves were released.

Ivan celebrated his victory over Kazan by building several churches with oriental features, most famously Saint Basil's Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow.

The fall of Kazan was only the beginning of a series of so-called " Cheremis wars". The attempts of the Moscow government to gain a foothold on the Middle Volga kept provoking uprisings of local peoples, which was suppressed only with great difficulty.

In campaigns in and , Russian troops conquered the Astrakhan Khanate at the mouths of the Volga River, and the new Astrakhan fortress was built in by Ivan Vyrodkov to replace the old Tatar capital.

The annexation of the Tatar khanates meant the conquest of vast territories, access to large markets and control of the entire length of the Volga River.

Subjugating Muslim khanates turned Muscovy into an empire. After his conquest of Kazan, Ivan is said to have ordered the crescent, a symbol of Islam, to be placed underneath the Christian cross on the domes of Orthodox Christian churches.

The results presaged the many disasters to come. A plan to unite the Volga and Don by a canal was detailed in Constantinople.

Early in , Ivan's ambassadors concluded a treaty at Constantinople that restored friendly relations between the Sultan and the Tsar.

In , Ivan launched the Livonian War in an attempt to gain access to the Baltic Sea and its major trade routes. The war ultimately proved unsuccessful and stretched on for 24 years and engaging the Kingdom of Sweden , the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Teutonic Knights of Livonia.

The prolonged war had nearly destroyed the economy, and the Oprichnina had thoroughly disrupted the government. Ivan's realm was being squeezed by two of the time's great powers.

After rejecting peace proposals from his enemies, Ivan had found himself in a difficult position by The displaced refugees fleeing the war compounded the effects of the simultaneous drought, and the exacerbated war engendered epidemics causing much loss of life.

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Sostrene Grene. Deutsche Post. Alexander and Xanthippe. Some exceptions occur such as Hexe witch , Nixe mermaid , Axt axe and Xanten.

It used to be more common in earlier centuries, and traces of this earlier usage persist in proper names. In loan words from the French language , spelling and accents are usually preserved.

Thus, German typewriters and computer keyboards offer two dead keys : one for the acute and grave accents and one for circumflex.

In one curious instance, the word Ski meaning as in English is pronounced as if it were Schi all over the German-speaking areas reflecting its pronunciation in its source language Norwegian , but only written that way in Austria.

This section lists German letters and letter combinations, and how to pronounce them transliterated into the International Phonetic Alphabet.

This is the pronunciation of Standard German. Note that the pronunciation of standard German varies slightly from region to region. In fact, it is possible to tell where most German speakers come from by their accent in standard German not to be confused with the different German dialects.

Double consonants are pronounced as single consonants, except in compound words. Consonants are sometimes doubled in writing to indicate the preceding vowel is to be pronounced as a short vowel.

Most one-syllable words that end in a single consonant are pronounced with long vowels, but there are some exceptions such as an , das , es , in , mit , and von.

The e in the ending -en is often silent, as in bitten "to ask, request". Tunnel , Mörtel "mortar" is pronounced short despite having just a single consonant on the end.

Long vowels are generally pronounced with greater tenseness than short vowels. The oldest known German texts date back to the 8th century. They were written mainly in monasteries in different local dialects of Old High German.

After the Carolingian Renaissance , however, during the reigns of the Ottonian and Salian dynasties in the 10th century and 11th century, German was rarely written, the literary language being almost exclusively Latin.

Notker the German is a notable exception in his period: not only are his German compositions of high stylistic value, but his orthography is also the first to follow a strictly coherent system.

Significant production of German texts only resumed during the reign of the Hohenstaufen dynasty in the High Middle Ages.

Around the year , there was a tendency towards a standardized Middle High German language and spelling for the first time, based on the Franconian - Swabian language of the Hohenstaufen court.

However, that language was used only in the epic poetry and minnesang lyric of the knight culture. These early tendencies of standardization ceased in the interregnum after the death of the last Hohenstaufen king in In the following centuries, the only variety that showed a marked tendency to be used across regions was the Middle Low German of the Hanseatic League , based on the variety of Lübeck and used in many areas of northern Germany and indeed northern Europe in general.

By the 16th century, a new interregional standard developed on the basis of the East Central German and Austro-Bavarian varieties.

This was influenced by several factors:. Midth century Counter-Reformation reintroduced Catholicism to Austria and Bavaria, prompting a rejection of the Lutheran language.

Instead, a specific southern interregional language was used, based on the language of the Habsburg chancellery. In the early 18th century, the Lutheran standard was also introduced in the southern states and countries, Austria, Bavaria and Switzerland, due to the influence of northern German writers, grammarians such as Johann Christoph Gottsched or language cultivation societies such as the Fruitbearing Society.

Though, by the midth century, one norm was generally established, there was no institutionalized standardization.

Only with the introduction of compulsory education in late 18th and early 19th century was the spelling further standardized, though at first independently in each state because of the political fragmentation of Germany.

Only the foundation of the German Empire in allowed for further standardization. In the same year, the Duden was declared to be authoritative in Prussia.

Since Prussia was, by far, the largest state in the German Empire, its regulations also influenced spelling elsewhere, for instance, in , when Switzerland recognized the Duden.

It declared the Duden to be authoritative, with a few innovations. In , its results were approved by the governments of the German Empire, Austria and Switzerland.

In , the Nazi German government planned a reform of the orthography , but because of World War II , it was never implemented.

After , German spelling was essentially decided de facto by the editors of the Duden dictionaries. By the early s, a few other publishing houses had begun to attack the Duden monopoly in the West by putting out their own dictionaries, which did not always hold to the "official" spellings prescribed by Duden.

In response, the Ministers of Culture of the federal states in West Germany officially declared the Duden spellings to be binding as of November The Duden editors used their power cautiously because they considered their primary task to be the documentation of usage, not the creation of rules.

At the same time, however, they found themselves forced to make finer and finer distinctions in the production of German spelling rules, and each new print run introduced a few reformed spellings.

German spelling and punctuation was changed in Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung von with the intent to simplify German orthography, and thus to make the language easier to learn, [17] without substantially changing the rules familiar to users of the language.

The rules of the new spelling concern correspondence between sounds and written letters including rules for spelling loan words , capitalisation, joined and separate words, hyphenated spellings, punctuation, and hyphenation at the end of a line.

Place names and family names were excluded from the reform. The reform was adopted initially by Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, and later by Luxembourg as well.

The new orthography is mandatory only in schools. A decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany confirmed that there is no law on the spelling people use in daily life, so they can use the old or the new spelling.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from German alphabet. For the international agreement about spelling rules among most German-speaking countries, see German orthography reform of Orthography used in writing the German language.

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Wicky Lübeck
Wicky Lübeck

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3 Kommentare zu „Wicky Lübeck“

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